260 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. the disposal of the Shah originally consisted of some sixty thousand Kizilbash horsemen, who would obey none but their chiefs. Consequently he was unable to give a com- mand to any one outside the Kizilbash themselves, in whose hands the entire power lay. To meet this difficulty he halved the numbers of the tribal contingents and organized a body of ten thousand cavalry and twelve thousand infantry, paid and officered by the crown. Allah Verdi1 Beg, the celebrated Commander-in- Chief, was quick to see the advantages of the Sherley mission, which included among its members a cannon- founder. With his assistance and thanks to the Sherleys, batteries of artillery were formed, as well as regiments of regular infantry. Indeed, mainly through the initiative of our fellow-countrymen, a revolution was effected in the military organization, and in place of a feudal force of horsemen Persia soon possessed an army fit to meet that of Turkey in the field. To quote from the old English book of travels : " The mightie Ottoman, terror of the Christian world, quaketh of a Sherly feuer, and gives hopes of approaching fates : the prevailing Persian hath learned Sherleian arts of war ; and he which before knew not the use of ordnance, hath now five hundred pieces of brasse, and sixty thousand musketiers: so that they, which at hand with the sword were before dreadful to the Turkes, now also, in remoter blows and sulfurian arts, are growne terrible.", The Formation of the Shah, Savan Tribe.—Yet another counterpoise to the turbulent Kizilbash was obtained by inviting members of all tribes to enrol themselves as Shah Savan, or " Friends of the Shah." This stroke of policy was entirely successful; thousands of men joined the new tribe, and the Shah was released from dependance on the Kizilbash. The tribe remains powerful at the present day and inhabits a wide stretch of country between Tabriz and Ardebil and south-east as far as Kazvin. Sir Anthony Sherley as Ambassador.—The great question agitating the Persian Court was whether war should be 1 Malcolm terms this well-known nobleman Ali Verdi, but Allah Verdi, meaning «God gave" in Turkish, is correct His curious death is mentioned in The Glory of the Shia World, p. 266.